|Chapter 12 - Behavior|
|“Man is man because he has no instincts, because everything he is and has become he has learned, acquired, from his culture, from the man-made part of the environment, from other human beings."|
|Anthropologist Ashley Montagu 1|
The subject of this chapter is genetically-induced (inherited) racial differences in behavior. Some (above quote) may question whether behavior is inherited in humans, 2 though it is clearly inherited in other mammals as well as birds, insects, crustaceans, fish, etc., 3 and even plants. Indeed, the argument has been made that without inherited emotions that motivate at least some behavior, a living thing would have no motivation to do anything. (Damasio, 1994).
We humans do not find ourselves just doing something that we did not intend to do, but rather we feel an urge to behave in a certain way, then give in to the urge when it is convenient to do so or it is so intense that it is hard to resist. Throughout the day we have urges to eat, urinate, sneeze, etc., all of which are genetically-caused feelings that induce us to engage in certain behavior. We may feel horny, nauseous, or tired, inducing us to seek sex, throw up, or take a nap. Feelings of pain and pleasure induce us to move away from heat or to take drugs. 4 Not only do we inherit most of the urges that guide our behavior, but those urges did not arise with the first man – they arose many millions of years before Homo was here.
Even very specific urges can be genetically-induced in humans. A pregnant woman’s craving for odd foods, perhaps needed for the health of her fetus, has provided laughs for many sitcoms. 5 Normal human children are born with a fear of snakes and spiders. 6 Women are attracted to high status men and men are attracted to young, healthy women. The similar idiosyncrasies of identical twins, even when they have been raised apart in different environments, can be explained only as inherited behavior. 7 Our environment may accentuate or diminish the extent to which we give in to our innate urges, but it may never entirely remove them.
When we deal with other people it is more difficult to determine whether our behavior is environmentally-acquired or genetically induced. The behaviors compared in Table 12-1, however, are so universal, both in location and time, that there should be a significant genetic component to them.
|Preparing for the future (2)||High||High||Low||Very Low|
|Work ethic (3)||High||High||Low||Low|
|High school non-dropout rate 8||79%||72%||51%||-|
|Promiscuity (number of sexual partners) (4)||Low||Medium||High||High|
|Pair bonding (5)||High||High||Low||Low|
|Intercourse position (6)||Most face-to-face||Most face-to-face||?||?|
|Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) (7)||Low||Norm||High||High|
|Father involvement (8)||Norm||Norm||Low||-|
|Welfare dependency||Low||Norm||4½ times greater than whites||-|
|Altruism (9)||High||Very high||Lower||-|
|Social conformity (10)||Higher||High||Lower||-|
|Full chattel slavery (11)||Rare||Not since 1865 in US||Not since 1865 in US||Still reported|
|Cannibalism (12)||No||No||No||Incidents still reported|
|Murder||Low||Norm||13 times higher than whites||High|
|Rape||Low||Norm||10 times higher than whites||High|
|White collar crimes||Low||Norm||3 times higher than whites||High|
(1) In their opinion of their own attractiveness and competency in reading, science, and social studies (but not math), blacks score higher than whites and Asians, despite their actual lower scores. 9 Ethnic pride, prohibited to whites by the Equality Police, increases happiness and, presumably, self-esteem. (Kiang, 2006).
(2) Forethought, the ability to plan and prepare for the future (preferring increased future benefits to immediate gratification), is closely related to the absence of impulsiveness. 10 The savings rate among Asians is high, indicating increased planning and willingness to defer gratification. 11 Drug addicts, children, low IQ people, and blacks prefer pleasures now rather than later, 12 and typically have little or no savings. 13 In a classic experiment, children were offered a small candy bar now or a large one later; most whites chose the large one later and most blacks chose the small one now. 14 A number of observers of Africans have commented that their behavior is “child-like” – that they are similar to children. 15
The inability to defer gratification leads to renting instead of saving and buying, theft rather than working and waiting, and rape instead of courting and seduction. The ability to plan ahead and defer gratification is critical to creating and maintaining a civilization, where the rights of others must be respected even if it means not getting something immediately when you want it.
(3) Asians students are known for the extra hours of study they put in, Caucasians less so, and African-Americans still less. Eurasians become self-motivated as they mature, Africans less so. Black unemployment is typically significantly higher than for Eurasians, even when jobs are available. “Hard work pays off in the future; indolence pays off now.” 16
All populations of all living things all over the planet, animal or plant, expand their numbers to meet the resources available. (Populations that failed to do this simply went extinct long ago as the inevitable drops in numbers in bad times would not have been compensated for by increases in good times.) This means that, a great deal of the time, every population bumps up against the limits of the carrying capacity of its territory and, during those difficult times, there will be intense competition, physical conflicts, and starvation. 17 Only those individuals who are prepared for the bad times will survive them.
In the colder north, the bad times come every winter when food is difficult or impossible to find. Man is not made to hibernate, 18 so he must store enough food to survive the winter, either as provisions or by fattening up. His body fat will not feed his children and children cannot store enough fat on their own bodies to make it through the winter, so there is no alternative but to store provisions; fortunately, the cold weather helps preserve food. The amount that a family needs to store will depend upon the severity of the winter and, since that cannot be predicted, man will, like squirrels, store an excess of food if he can.
In contrast, an African in the tropics has no winter to worry about, but he does have changes in rainfall and other factors that affect his food supply. Unlike winter, however, these changes are unpredictable and preparing for them is likely to be a waste of time and resources. And, even if he acquires extra food, it is nearly impossible to store it for long at the high temperatures of the tropics. 19 Hunting for extra food that cannot be easily stored not only wastes his future food supplies, but could result in injury and death; he is better off doing nothing until he must. 20
(4) Blacks have the most sexual partners. 21 The sex drive of non-Hispanic blacks is 1.19 standard deviations (SDs) or 37% greater than whites, but that of Asian/Pacific Islanders is 0.124 SDs or 4% lower. 22 The proportion of adults who first had sex before age 15 was highest for non-Hispanic blacks (28%), compared to 14% for both Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Only 6% of blacks abstained from sex until age 21 or older, fewer than Mexican-Americans (17%) or non-Hispanic whites (15%); 46% of black men and 13% of black women reported having at least 15 partners in a lifetime, more than other racial or ethnic groups. 23 According to the CDC (National Statistics Reports, Preliminary 2006, Table 1), 70.7% of the births of non-Hispanic blacks were out of wedlock, compared to 26.6% for non-Hispanic white mothers. Africans have a high frequency of fraternal twins (up to 49 per 1000 births) 24 which indicates high promiscuity and low pair bonding.
Promiscuity in a population correlates with larger testicles because females have sex with many males and the male that produces the most sperm is more likely to fertilize the egg. 25 There is a tradeoff between testicle size and brain size because both are costly organs – if more resources are invested in larger testicles, then there are fewer resources available for a larger brain. Also, brains and testicles support different strategies for the male to pass on his alleles; large testicles rely on sperm competition and a large brain relies on “meat for sex,” i.e., supplying the female with the resources she needs to reproduce and support her offspring. 26 If females need male resources, big brains beat big balls. Of the three major races, blacks have the largest testicles and the smallest brains. (Chap. 10).
(5) (Jaynes, 1989). Pair bonding is related to monogamy, the extent to which men and women limit their sexual activity to a single partner. 27 Pair bonding supports a family structure for raising children, a more “K” reproductive strategy. Since the burden of provisioning fell more heavily upon men in the cold north than in the warm tropics, where women gathered most of the food for themselves and their children, it was more difficult for a man in the north to support more than one wife. Monogamy is more typical of the colder climates, while polygamy is more typical of the tropics. 28 In sub-Saharan Africa, a woman is more likely to have children by different fathers, and the children are raised, not by a family, but by the village. 29 Monogamy was induced by females when they evolved to hide obvious indications that they were fertile (e.g., bright red genitalia or rumps), so that males stayed around for sex all the time and helped raise the kids instead of chasing after other females. (Rodriguez-Girones, 2001). Unlike female apes, who give obvious signals when they are in estrus (i.e., capable of conceiving), it is not obvious when a human female is ovulating. Concealed ovulation in females leads to “copulatory vigilance” in males, i.e., males had to stay close to the female as much as possible to keep other males away and be certain that other males did not father her children; that would also promote pair bonding. (Lovejoy, 1981). Pair bonding was an important step toward becoming human (Chapais, 2008) and, since there is less of it in Africa, that suggests (Chapter 4, Rule 11) that it did not originate in Africa and that man's lineage became human outside of Africa.
The hormone-driven feeling of falling in love is clearly an adaptation that induces pair bonding. 30 Thus, the feeling should have been absent prior to pair bonding and should be diminished in Africans, who pair bond less. Male deception can be expected when females rely upon their mates being in love with them in order to ensure long-term pair bonding. Men, even those who pair bond, seek sex with other women to maximize their fitness because having sex a thousand times with one woman will produce fewer progeny than having sex once with a thousand women. Each sex tries to maximize its fitness, only because those individuals whose alleles did not induce maximizing behavior did not leave descendants.
Prior to agriculture (about 12,000 ya) our hunter-gatherer ancestors pair bonded only as long as it took to wean a child, 4 or 5 yrs. After that, the couple would find other mates if they wished to. (Fisher, 1992). However, when the hunter-gatherer lifestyle gave way to agriculture, splitting up was no longer feasible because survival was tied to farming a particular piece of land. As the percentage of farmers in the U.S. has declined from about 97% to less than 3%, couples have reverted to man’s original lifestyle of short term pair bonding (Allman, 1994, p. 130), aka “serial monogamy.”
(6) “Most animals [female primates] have brightly colored and fleshy rumps, and they mate from behind.” (Etcoff, 1999, p. 188). Only man, orangutans (usually), bonobos (commonly; De Waal, 1997, p. 102; Coppens, 2004, p. 13; though Schwartz, 2005, p. 155, says it is mostly during homosexual encounters), Japanese macaques (30% of the time, Wolfe, 1984), gorillas (“sometimes”) 31 and porcupines (wisely) mate front-to-front. When man shifted to front-to-front mating, women’s breasts and nipples became a more prominent visual display to the male. (Morris, 1967). The large fleshy rumps of Andaman Islanders, Hottentots, and Bushmen (Fig. 26-4, 26-5, & 26-6), suggest front-to-back mating, but data on the sexual positions of Africans is hard to come by. “We travel in packs and we do it from the back.” (Lyric from the album “Doggystyle” by African American rapper “Snoop Dogg.”) The popularity of “down low” (anal homosexuality) in African American men, which has been responsible for the spread of AIDS to African American women, 32 also suggests front-to-back mating, as does the high level of AIDS in Africa. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse is 20 to 500 times more infectious than vaginal intercourse (Leynaert, 1998) and people frequently lie about their sexual activities. (Brody, 1997). While the female genitals in Orientals are “front and high,” in Africans they are “back and low”; erections in Orientals are “parallel to the body and stiff” but in blacks are “at right angles to body and flexible,” which also suggests front-to-back mating. 33
(7) Blacks have the highest incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a consequence of their promiscuity and impulsiveness. Of the roughly 1 million people estimated to be living with HIV in the United States, 47% are African-American (CDC, 2005) and they were 56% of the newly diagnosed HIV cases in 2005. African Americans represent about 12.8% of the U.S. population (U.S. Census, 2005), but black men are diagnosed with HIV at more than seven times the rate of white men, and black women at 20 times the rate of white women. (Kalb, 2006; Hall, 2008). The prevalence of the AIDS virus doubled from 1% to 2% of American blacks while white rates held steady at 0.2 percent. 34 Non-Hispanic blacks between 19 and 24 yrs of age are 20 times more likely to be infected with HIV than young adults in any other racial or ethnic group in the U.S. Figure 12-1 gives the percentage of HIV/AIDS cases in Washington, D.C. (60% black) by race. 35 All the top 15 countries for HIV/AIDS in 2005 were African. 36
Blacks have higher rates for other sexually transmitted diseases as well, which can also be attributed to their promiscuity and failure to practice safe sex (which requires anticipating future consequences of current acts). In 2006, the U.S. African American chlamydia rate was 8 times the white rate, the African American gonorrhea rate was 18 times the white rate; the black congenital syphilis rate in 2005 was 15.1 times the white rate. 37 About 40% of U.S. black adults have genital herpes, compared to 14% of whites. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Aug., 2006). Nearly half of black girls age 14 to 19 have at least one STD, compared to 20% for white girls. (CDC, 2003-2004 data).
(8) Africans are more likely to be cads than dads (more “r” orientated, see previous chapter). Low father involvement (e.g., illegitimacy, divorce) is tied to promiscuity in girls and aggression in boys (Blain, 1988; Heatherton, 1972), both of which are higher in African Americans. Africans and African Americans have similar family structures, suggesting it is genetic. (Wilson, 2002).
(9) A desire to help other people, even strangers (“altruism”) appears to be a genetically-induced behavior as it has been observed in children as young as 18 months. 38 No studies of racial differences in altruism have been found but, in terms of donations of money, blood, and human organs, Caucasians are far more generous than other races, and they do so less in accordance with kinship.
(10) (Allik, 2004; Lynn, 2002c & 2003). Social conformity and less deviancy may contribute to a lower Asian level of achievement, despite a higher IQ. (Chap. 14.)
(11) Full chattel slavery (the buying and selling of people as though they were animals), either legally or tolerated, has been practiced by all three races against members of their own race and other races, 39 but it is practiced openly today only by Africans. 40 In the U.S. prior to 1865, some black slaves who had been freed even purchased their own black slaves. (Grooms, 1995, pp. 17-21; Robson, 2006; Koger, 1985). Had whites not purchased African slaves from Africans, the slaves would most likely have been slain and eaten because they were enemies and had little value unless they could be sold as slaves. Thus, being purchased by non-Africans was a successful reproductive “strategy” for African slaves. 41
(12) Cannibalism occurs under a number of very different circumstances. In its least unacceptable form people find the behavior abhorrent, but the choice is eat or die. "Desperation cannibalism" occurred, for example, when the Donner Party was trapped in the Rocky Mountains in 1846, when a plane crashed in the Andes Mountains in 1972, and when the Allies starved the German people after WWII. (Keeling, 1947, p. 65). Next, there is cannibalism that is not necessary to live, but it is part of the culture. "Cultural cannibalism" occurred on Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific, kuru, a brain disease caused by prions, was passed on to people who ate the brains of dead relatives. It has also been reported in China. (Chong, K.R., Cannibalism in China, Longwood Academic, 1990, excerpted Dienekes'Anthropology Blog, Feb. 9, 2004).
Last, there is "homicidal cannibalism," deliberately killing people for the pleasure of eating them, either in secret by psychopathic individuals or in the open by groups of seemingly-normal people. From cut marks on fossilized human bones, cannibalism is believed to have been widespread among early man, 42 but it is difficult to determine the circumstances from fossils. However, given that man competed group-against-group, with groups expanding in times of plenty and starving the rest of the time, killing people in other groups for food would not be surprising. Before contact with the outside world, killing people for food was common in Africa and there are still occasional reports of it today. 43 It was also practiced by indigenous natives in Ecuador as recently as the 1970's and is still being reported in New Guinea. (Raffaele, 2006).
Homicidal cannibalism is a good indicator of psychopathy because it requires the complete absence of empathy for the victim. It is likely that early men were homicidal cannibals and would be judged pychopathic today. When man moved north, cooperation, trust, and honor were required for survival. Since psychopaths lacked the empathy needed for those qualities psychopathy would have become maladaptive and would have been selected against and minimized. Thus, we should expect tropical primitive populations to have a higher percentage of psychopathic individuals. (Lynn, 2002c).
(13) The crime ratios in Table 12-1 are for African Americans living in the U.S., 44 but similar ratios are found in other countries that have a high percentage of blacks, such as Great Britain, 45 France, and Canada. Indeed, go to any city or country in the world that has a significant black population, and blacks will be overrepresented in the criminal population. 46 In Great Britain, 3 out of 4 black men are in the DNA criminal database (i.e., they were arrested; Telegraph, Nov. 5, 2006). Using data from international surveys of crime, (Rushton, 2000a), pp. 158-160) found that violent crime was twice as common in Africa and the Caribbean as in predominantly white countries. In the U.S., the crime rate of black high school dropouts between ages 26 and 30 is so high that more are institutionalized (34%) than are employed (30%). 47 Although blacks are only about 12.8% of the U.S. population (U.S. Census, 2005), “Among the 1.4 million inmates sentenced to more than one year at year-end 2003, an estimated 44 percent were black, 35 percent white, 19 percent Hispanic and 2 percent of other races.” (Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 7, 2004, on About.com).
African American crime has long been a fixture in the U.S. In 1954, for example, the Negro/white ratio was 16:1 for murder, 13:1 for robbery, and 6:1 for rape, despite Negroes being only about 10% of the population at that time. (Dept. of Justice, Vol. 25, No. 2). More recently, the death from murder rate in 2003 per 100,000 for non-Hispanic males aged 20 to 24 was 6.5 for whites but 10 times higher, 64.5, for blacks. (National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 55, No. 10, Mar. 15, 2007). Compared to non-blacks, blacks are seven times more likely to commit murder, 48 eight times more likely to commit robbery, and three times more likely to use a gun in a crime. 49 In the United States, 18.71 blacks were killed per 100,000 blacks and 2.97 whites were killed per 100,000 whites. 50 During the 10 year period from 1975 to 1985, spousal homicide among blacks was 8.4 times higher than that of whites. 51 Since blacks discourage blacks from cooperating with the police (“Don’t Snitch”) and black juries frequently refuse to convict black defendants, even when they are obviously guilty, e.g., O.J. Simpson, the real black crime rates are higher than the reported rates.
Blacks and white egalitarians may say that higher black crime rates are just a stereotype, but even they are betrayed by their amygdala, a part of the brain that serves as an “alarm” that activates a cascade of other biological systems to protect the body in times of danger. The amygdala alarm “goes off” in about two-thirds of both blacks and whites, even egalitarian whites, who are shown pictures of black faces, but not when shown pictures of white faces. (NCF, 2005). As the statistics show, people, e.g., Barack Obama’s white grandmother, correctly believe that the primitive features of blacks indicate a more violent and dangerous person. African American male murderers of whites who have “black-looking” features are more than twice as likely to be executed as those who look less ‘black,” i.e., less primitive and therefore less dangerous. (Eberhardt, 2006). Other primitive people also have a high crime rate. 52
A tendency towards criminal behavior is heritable (Wright, 1997, p. 23). A 1999 Justice Department survey found that 46% of jail inmates had at least one sibling, parent, or child who had been incarcerated at some point. “Research consistently places the average IQ of convicted lawbreakers at 92, some 8 points below the population average and 10 points below the average for law-abiding folks. Available data also suggest that offenders who get away with their crimes fare no better on intelligence tests than those who get nabbed and convicted. IQ scores often dip most sharply for serious, repeat offenders, a small set of primarily young men who commit a majority of all crimes.” (Bower, B., “Criminal Intellects,” Science News, Apr. 15, 1995).
Crime increases as IQ decreases in both whites and blacks, but blacks commit more crime than whites who have the same IQ. Lynn suggests that this is because blacks are more likely to have a psychopathic personality, as evidenced, for example, by their inability to work consistently, unlawful behaviors, aggressiveness, failure to pay debts, impulsiveness, deception, recklessness, poor parenting, absence of remorse, and disruptive childhood behavior. 53 The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is used to measure psychopathic personality. Blacks and American Indians have the highest psychopathic scores, then Hispanics, followed by whites, then ethnic Japanese and Chinese, who have the lowest scores. 54 Consciousness and character are concentrated in the frontal lobe of the brain, which is a recent evolutionary development and therefore not yet completely stable. Europeans have the most developed frontal lobe and Africans the least. 55
Black on White Crime
Table of Contents
1. “Ashley Montagu” was born as Israel Ehrenberg. He corrupted anthropology for political goals, but his 1989 book on neoteny, "Growing Young" has many good ideas in it. (Putnam 1967, pp. 24-27). Back
2. (Pinker, 2002). For saying that genes influenced human behavior, E.O. Wilson, the father of sociobiology, was picketed with placards bearing swastikas, and a woman poured cold water over his head. But, as we saw in Chapter 8, humans do inherit behavior. Children’s behavioral problems are largely genetic (Harden, 2007), and there is evidence that even facial expressions are inherited. (Peleg, 2006). Back
3. There are basic structural and functional similarities between the brains of all animals, including even insects so, since they inherit behavior we might expect humans to also do so. Back
4. Our brains have evolved to give us pleasure when we engage in behavior that increases our fitness, e.g., sex. Recreational drugs short-circuit the brain so that we receive pleasure even if we reduce our fitness; using contraceptives also lets us have pleasure without increasing fitness. Back
5. Morning sickness and disgust at certain foods is inherited behavior that keeps a fetus protected from infection during the first trimester, when it is most vulnerable. (Holland, 2003). Back
6. (“Built-in brain templates may clue tots to threats,” World Science, Sept. 18, 2007; LoBue, 2008). Back
7. (Rushton, 2000a, p. 46; Bouchard, 1990; Martin, 1986; Hamilton, 1964; Segal, 1999; “Square Peg in a Round Hole,” The Realist (internet), Jan. 1, 2007). Emotions, such as falling in love, lust, and sexual jealousy, serve a reproductive purpose. Emotions such as gratitude and the desire for revenge ensure that others will know that we will reciprocate their kindnesses and punish them for perceived misdeeds. (Barkow, 1991, pp. 122-123). Back
8. (Greene, 2003). "Blacks nearing the end of their high school education perform a little worse than white eighth-graders in both reading and U.S. history, and a lot worse in math and geography. In math and geography, indeed, they know no more than whites in the seventh grade.” (Thernstrom, 2003). Back
9. (Rushton, 2000a, p. 154-155) citing (Tashakkori,1993). Also (Levin, 1997, pp. 74-76). The self-esteem of blacks is fragile and insecure and must be constantly defended; this is the reason that perceived “dissing” so often triggers a violent response. Back
10. (Levin, 1997, pp. 77-78, 116-119; Hunt, 1865, p. 18). Back
11. Of 500 Blacks and 500 Whites earning more than $50,000 annually, blacks saved less than half the median amount that Whites saved. (Tenth Annual Black Investor Survey by Ariel/Schwab). An interesting example of planning is the summer solstice fertility ritual on June 21, practiced by Europeans in northern latitudes to ensure that most babies are born in the Spring when food is plentiful and the weather is mild; this ritual survives today as June weddings. Back
12. Much of man’s progress is due to his ability to visualize the future and act now to ensure a better future, “temporealization.” Asians do it the most, Africans the least, and Caucasians in between, but close to Asians, with overlapping bell-shaped curves describing individuals within those races. Like all traits, there is an optimal amount of temporealization; having too much of it means one does not live to see the future, while too little means one makes no progress. In Rhodesia and South Africa, white farmers taught Africans farming and herding for four years; the black farmers produced 10 times as much as before. The whites left and returned two years later to find the farmers had reverted to their previous behavior. (Mes, 1964 & 1965). Back
13. Impulsiveness is related to criminality and drug addiction. Addicts have fewer D2/3 receptors in their brain, though information on racial differences in the number of these receptors is not yet available. (Dalley, 2007). Back
14. (Mischel, 1961, p. 6), who said, “Negroes are impulsive, indulge themselves, settle for next to nothing if they can get it right away, do not work or wait for bigger things in the future.” Back
15. E.g., “…the Negro is a child…” (Albert Schweitzer, On the Edge of the Primeval Forest). “[M]entally the African Negro is childlike, normally affable and cheerful, but subject to fits of fierce passion.” (East, E., Harvard geneticist). Kenyan pathologist (F. W. Vint, 1934) described the cortex of an adult African brain as equivalent to the brain of a European child of 7 or 8. Back
16. "Ours is one continued struggle against degradation sought to be inflicted upon us by the European, who desire to degrade us to the level of the raw Kaffir [African], whose occupation is hunting and whose sole ambition is to collect a certain number of cattle to buy a wife with, and then pass his life in indolence and nakedness." Gandhi. (Ahmedabad, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. II, p. 74, 1963). “[Negroes] hold labor as an evil inferior only to death.” (Consul Burton, in Hunt, 1864, p. 18). “There is abundant evidence to show that the Negro will not work without a considerable amount of persuasion.” (Id., p. 25). Back
17. Females reduce their fertility in times of famine and increase it and accelerate their maturation rate in times of plenty, but changes in the abundance of food can easily overwhelm those measures. Back
18. Man did not evolve to hibernate, perhaps because he would have to compete for caves with more powerful animals, such as the cave bear, though hibernation can be induced in man. (Discover magazine, May, 2007, p. 43). Back
19. “In tropical environments where food is available all year round, hunter-gatherers rarely store food even overnight…” (Haywood, 2000, p. 90). Back
20. The metabolic rate of resting black women is lower than resting white women, which conserves their energy. (Albu, 1997). A lower metabolic rate generally means a longer life span, but blacks have a shorter life span, suggesting that they are even more “r” orientated than indicated by their life span. (Conti, 2006). Back
21. (Rushton, 2000a, Chapter 8). Back
22. (La Griffe du Lion, 2000e; “La Griffe du Lion” is the pseudonym of Dr. Robert Gordon of Johns Hopkins). Back
23. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected from 1999 to 2002 for the National Center for Health Statistics, a branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 1991, basketball player Wilt Chamberlin estimated that he had had sex with 18,000 different women over the previous forty years (an average of 1.2 per day). Back
24. (Diamond, 1986, pp 488-489), quoted in Variation in Library of Excerpts, “Sexual Organs and Heterocronic Theory. Back
25. However, just as more children means less investment per child, more sperm means less investment per sperm, and quality decreases. (Blumenstiel, 2007). Back
26. (Pitnick, 2006). Increased brain size and intelligence advanced along with acquiring higher energy foods, e.g., meat, and cooking, which permitted a large decrease in the size of the gut. (Aiello, 1995; Pennisi, 1999). Back
27. Usually, the most monogamous primates have the most devoted fathers. Even when the females mate with multiple males, a male will take special care of a baby if he can identify it as his own, as baboons do by odor. Monogamy is also tied to brain size. “…the largest relative brain sizes among primate species are associated with monogamous mating systems …” (Schillaci, 2006). Back
28. "The question, as it presents itself in practice to a woman, is whether it is better to have, say, a whole share in a tenth-rate man or a tenth share in a first-rate man." (George Bernard Shaw). Back
29. (Rushton, 2000a, p 156). “It takes a village to raise a child.” (First Lady Hillary Clinton, speech to Democratic Convention, Aug. 27, 1996, and book title). The pattern of men having children by several women, married to none of them, and women raising the children is common in all African and mulatto populations. (e.g., “Cape Verde,” eDiplomat.com, Feb. 16, 2008). An African American woman tells a census taker that her five boys are all named “Jamal.” Astounded, he asks how they know who she is talking to. “It’s easy,” she says. “I call them by their last names.” Back
30. Falling in love causes pair bonding and reduces the attractiveness of others. (Gonzaga, 2008). Back
31. (“Unique Mating Photos of Wild Gorillas Face To Face,” Science Daily, Feb. 13, 2008). Back
32. According to the Center for Disease Control, 64% of the women with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. are black. Back
33. Library of Excerpts. (Also, Baker, 1974, p. 311). Africans are less neotenic than Eurasians; "... the frontally oriented vulva [of the bonobo] is considered a neotenous characteristic, also present in our own species." (De Waal, 1997, p. 27). Back
34. (National Health and Nutrition Examinations Surveys, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Comparing 1988-1994 data to 1999-2002 data). Back
35. (Levine, S. “Study Calls HIV in D.C. A 'Modern Epidemic’,” Washington Post, Nov. 26, 2007). Nationally, in 2005, 66% of diagnoses of HIV/AIDS in women were African Americans and 17% white, despite the much greater number of whites. (CDC HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet). Back
36. (Population Reference Bureau, 2006 World Population Data Sheet, "The Top 15 HIV/AIDS Prevalence Countries (2005)"). Back
37. (“Trends in Reportable Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States, 2006,” and “Serveillance, 2006,” CDC). Back
38. (Warneken, 2006). Empathy for the suffering of others activates the pain centers of the brain, motivating people to help others to relieve the discomfort. (Jackson, P.L., 2005; Tankersley, 2007). Back
39. The British forced men to labor on ships (“impressment”), the Allies enslaved Germans after WWII (Keeling, 1947), and the slavery of the Russian concentration camps in the 1920’s and 1930’s was far worse than any black slavery in the United States. (Greife, 1999). Also see (Hoffman, M.A., They Were White and They Were Slaves: The Untold History of the Enslavement of Whites in Early America, 1993; Davis, R., Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800, 2003). Back
40. ("Scale of African Slavery Revealed," BBC News, April 23, 2004). Some American black slaves were permitted to work for others, paying their master a portion of what they earned. If a “slave” is someone whose earnings are seized for the benefit of his master then, due to government redistribution (e.g., taxes and welfare), today more white Americans are slaves of African Americans than the reverse. Back
41. (Cartwright, 1857, p. 47-48). “Unlike other tribes, the Fang had few slaves, partly because they were accustomed to eat prisoners taken in war; but they bought the bodies of slaves from other tribes for eating, paying ivory for them.” (Baker, 1974, p. 391). The demand for slaves by non-Africans no doubt increased the number of Africans that were enslaved by other Africans. Back
42. (Arsuaga, 2001, p. 58). Cannibalism has been reported in chimpanzees (Goodall, 1977) and the presence of 500,000 year old alleles in modern humans of genes that give protection against diseases caused by prions, such as Creutzfeld Jacob disease and kuru, which can be caused by eating human brains, suggests that early humans were cannibals. (Pennisi, 2003). Cannibalism may have accelerated man’s evolution as it nourished the more capable at the expense of the less capable. Back
43. (Baker, 1974, pp. 364-365). “Cannibalism is found in its simplest form in Africa. In that continent the majority of cannibal tribes eat human flesh because they like it, and not from any magical motive or from lack of other animal food. In fact it is noticeable that the tribes most addicted to this practice inhabit just those districts where game is most plentiful.” (1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, p. 345). "This phase began on 26 June 1952 when Dr. Mary Quinlan, a White Sister who for many years had worked among the poorest Blacks in the port of East London [South Africa], emerged from a hovel where she had been tending a mother just confined in childbirth, and ran into a raving mob of several hundreds who tore her to pieces and ate her in the street." (Reed, D., "The Siege of Southern Africa," Chapter 7, 1974). Also, (Onyango-Obbo, 2003). (www.YouTube.com, “Founded by Americans, Liberia was once the shining star of Sub-Saharan Africa. Now cannibals rule the streets”). Other YouTube videos show cannibalism in Liberia and New Guinea. Cannibalism of slaves in Africa may have functioned as a substitute for the domestication of animals as a source of fresh meat. For ritual killing in Africa, see (Oke, I., Blood Secrets, 1991). Back
44. (Rushton, 2000a, p 157-160). Also see (NCF, 2005). Back
45. Britain is 2% black, but about 1/3 of the shooting victims are black. (Thompson, T., “The truth about black on black crime,” Independent, Apr. 15, 2007). Back
46. “Interestingly, of all the foreign groups living in Japan, Africans are the most crime prone, …” (Jared Taylor, “In Praise of Homogeneity,” American Renaissance, Aug., 2007, Vol. 18, No. 8, p. 3). Back
47. (Raphael, 2004, based on the 2000 U.S. Census). And, in case you’re wondering, the high black incarceration rate is not due to discrimination. (MacDonald, H., “Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist?” City Journal, 2008, 18(2)). The high crime rate of blacks is partly responsible for the poverty of black neighborhoods as crime lowers property values and increases living costs, i.e., crime causes poverty, rather than the reverse. Also, people usually do what they have an incentive to do. Black disfunctionality is rewarded by more white guilt and capitulation, a wonderful incentive for more disfunctionality. Back
48. Between 1976, when the Feds began keeping track, and 2005, blacks committed 52.2% of the homicides in the U.S., despite being less than 12.5% of the population. (Sailer, 2008a, Bureau of Justice Statistics). By under-reporting black crime, the media has led the public to believe that most serial killers are white, but between 1945 and 2004, “African Americans were overrepresented in the ranks of serial killers by a factor of about 2.” (Walsh, 2005). That is less than their over-representation in all homicides, but since serial killers have an average IQ of 110, that is understandable. (Bourgouin, 1993). Back
49. (NCF, 2005). Back
50. (“Black Homicide Victimization in the United States: An Analysis of 2004 Homicide Data,” Violence Policy Center). Back
51. (Mercy, 1989). Spousal killings are discussed from the viewpoint of evolutionary psychology in (Buss, 2005). The killer, if caught, reduces his reproductive success because he ends up in jail or dead. However, his anger leads to killing his wife as a way of enhancing his reproductive success. If his wife leaves him, for example, it is a sign of disrespect, which lowers his status and tells other women that he is undesirable, reducing his chances of mating with them. That is why, especially among blacks and Hispanics, fighting and even dying over “dissing” (disrespecting) happen so frequently. A man who is “dissed” and does not retaliate will not get the women. Somewhat counterintuitively, white women are the most desirable women and yet they are more likely to be killed by a black spouse than is a black wife. Because possessing a white woman increases a black’s status more, if she rejects him it is a greater threat to his status, e.g., O.J. Simpson. (Mercy, 1989). Back
52. The remote Australian aborigine community of Wadeye was racked by sexual abuse, gang wars, crime, and poverty. (“Aboriginal township clean-up urged,” Taipei Times, May 24, 2006, p. 4). The Maori, the New Zealand aborigines, have a high rate of child abuse. (" Suffer the Little Children," American Renaissance, Oct., 2007, 18(10):15). Back
53. (Lynn, 2002c & 2003; Lynn, 2002e; Levin, 1997, p. 74). “… the criminality of Negroes in the northern states is considerably higher than in the sourthern states, actually three to one.”(Bonger, 1948, p. 44). That is true despite northern blacks having a higher IQ (Chapter 14, FN 43), perhaps due to stronger social controls in the South. Back
54. Jews, particularly Zionists, may have the highest psychopathic score, but data is not available. Also see (Stout, 2005). Back
55. (Viding, 2005). “African Negro mentality is comparable to that of the lobotomized European,” i.e., a European with his frontal lobes removed. Quoted in (Simpson, 2003, p. 705). Attributed to J.C. Carothers. (Putnam, 1961, p. 53). Back
56. “In 2005, there were more than 645,000 victims of cross-racial violent crimes between blacks and whites in the U.S. In 90 percent of those crimes, black offenders attacked white victims.” (Witt, H., Chicago Tribune, “What Is a Hate Crime?” Aug. 24, 2007). Black leader Jesse Jackson admitted that when he worked as a waiter in a Greenville, South Carolina hotel he spat into the soups and salads of white customers. (Pekkanen, J., "Jesse Jackson? Black Hope, White Hope: His Style is Militant but Nonviolent," Life Magazine, Nov. 21, 1969, p. 67). Blacks also target cops. From 1994 to 2005, 40% of the cop killers were black. (MacDonald, H. “Cop Killers in High Places,” Front Page Magazine, July 23, 2007). Back
57. (Sheehan, P., “The Race War Of Black Against White,” The Sydney Morning Herald, May 20, 1995). On the other hand, one might wonder why blacks are 20 times as likely to be a victim of a hate crime as a white. Part of the explanation is that when Hispanics commit a hate crime they are classified as “white,” and when they are the victim of a hate crime they are classified as “Hispanic.” Also, there are about 6 times as many whites as blacks (La Griffe du Lion, 2000b), but the best explanation is that authorities relish prosecuting whites for hate crimes, but are very reluctant to prosecute blacks for them. Thus, if the perpetrator is white and he said anything derogatory about the black race, even in anger, or there is any evidence that he does not like blacks, it is a hate crime, but in the reverse situation, unless there is overwhelming evidence of hate, it is not a hate crime. Back
58. (La Griffe du Lion, 1999a). The right vertical axis gives the number of times a white person’s risk of being violently victimized increases over what it would have been had the neighborhood remained all white. Note that if blacks were not targeting whites, the blue curve in Figure 12-2 would be a straight diagonal line from the lower left to the upper right and, if the black crime rate was also the same as the white crime rate, the blue line would a straight horizontal line that coincided with the red line. “ … houses in districts with mostly white and Asian students often sell for tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars more than in districts populated mostly by black and Hispanic students.” (Sailer, 2007d). Back
59. (“Banned From YouTube,”) Also see (Wikipedia, “Yaweh Ben Yaweh” in Robert Rozier). “The death of over 120 white people is a very beautiful thing.” (Speech by Malcolm X in Los Angeles on June 3, 1962, upon learning of a plane crash). “We have to exterminate white people off the face of the planet to solve this problem.” (Dr. Kamau Kambon, former NC State visiting professor of African Studies, speaking to a forum at Howard University; see Adams, M.S., Townhall.com, Oct. 21, 2005). “… why not have a week and kill white people?” (Rapper Sister Souljah, Washington Post, 1992). In the red-black-green “pan-African flag,” the green is for “our land,” the black is for blacks, and the red is for the blood of whites. Back
60. “Is it conceivable that human beings actually ran other humans through rotary saws?” (James Burnham, an editor of National Review, "The Seige of Southern Africa,".) Also, (Levin, 1997, pp. 178-179, 291-332; citations in Simpson, 2003, pp. 722-724). Another difference: during natural disasters and the collapse of civil authority, whites tend to come together to help each other; blacks see it as an opportunity for looting and rape. ("Rape 'Epidemic' in African conflict zones: UNICEF,” Reuters, Feb. 13, 2008). Back
61. Comparing the “Jena Six,” i.e., six black teenagers who kicked and stomped an unconscious white teenager, with her brother, who was killed by five black teenagers in the same manner, black author Carol Swain said, “Do people of other races behave in this way? No. This sort of murderous pack savagery is characteristic of blacks and blacks only.” (“When teens aren’t taught value of life, it can have deadly consequences,” Tennessean.com, Sept. 28, 2007). (Wikipedia, “Sarah Kraeger”). Back
62. When the percentage of blacks in schools reaches 10-15%, blacks become a problem. (Putnam, 1967, p. 129). Horrendous white criminals, e.g., Jeffrey Dahlmer, have severe mental problems, but most of the blacks that commit such crimes are ordinary people, sometimes picking up friends or acquaintances on the spur of the moment to participate in their crimes. (Francis, S. “Diversity Disaster: The Censored Truth about the 'Fat Tuesday' Riots,” VDARE.com, Mar. 20, 2001). Also, (Wikipedia, “Los Angeles riots of 1992”). Back
63. Although these were among the most horrifying crimes ever committed in the United States, the media have almost completely ignored them; had the races been reversed, they would be described in high school history books and Congress would pass stronger “hate” crime laws. (Buchanan, P.J., “The Jena Six – and Other ‘Hoax’ Crimes,” VDARE.com, Feb. 14, 2008). Back
64. (Stix, N., “The Knoxville Horror: The Crime and the Media Blackout,” American Renaissance, Vol. 18, No. 7, July, 2007). There are many other examples of black “gang” attacks on one or a few white victims, e.g., 1999 in North Charleston, S.C. where seven blacks attacked two white bicyclists, leaving one permanently disabled, the Halloween, 2006, attack in Long Beach, CA, where 11 black teenagers severely beat three young white women, and the April, 2005, attack on 4 white girls by 30 blacks in Marine Park, Brooklyn, NY. Gang attacks by blacks on white females often include black females, who resent white females taking the diminishing number of black men who are not in prison. (Manzer, T. “Victim Describes Beating,” Press Telegram, Dec., 1, 2006; Hernandez, M. “Non Bias Attack,” Brooklyn Skyline, Apr. 11, 2005). There are many more EXAMPLES. Back
65. The Union of South Africa is the rape capital of the world. (News 24,” Nov. 22, 2005). The South African rape rate is estimated at at least 1.69 million females per year, 40% of which are of children; more than 65% are gang rapes. (Clayton, J. Anti-rape device must be banned, say women," Times Online, June 8, 2005). Also, (Gettleman, J., “Rape Epidemic Raises Trauma of Congo War,” The New York Times, Oct. 7, 2007). Back
66. A high black rape rate is to be expected because women in Africa are self-supporting. Thus, rape is likely to result in living children, so a rapist passes on his genetic predisposition to rape. In the cold north, women were not self-supoprting and the children of rape were not likely to survive; men who supported a woman and did not resort to rape were more reproductively successful. Rape is a good example of how behavior that was once adaptive (in the tropics) can become maladaptive when the environment changes (people migrate north); culture becomes more compatible with the requirements of new environment. Back
67. (Department of Justice, Criminal Victimization in the United States, Table 42, 2005). Back
68. Black-on-white rape is 115 times more common than white-on-black rape. (NCF, 2005). When white-on-black rape is reported, it is trumpeted in the media, though the most prominent cases have turned out to be fake, e.g., the 1987 Tawana Brawley hoax and the 2006 non-rape of a black stripper by white members of the Duke University Lacrosse Team. Back
69. (Auster, L., “The Truth of Interracial Rape in the United States.” Front Page Magazine, May 3, 2007). “I became a rapist. To refine my technique and ‘modus operandi,’ I started out by practicing on black girls in the ghetto – in the black ghetto where dark and vicious deeds appear not as aberrations or deviations from the norm, but as part of the sufficiency of the Evil of the day – and when I considered myself smooth enough, I crossed the tracks and sought out white prey.” (Eldridge Cleaver, Soul on Ice, 1968). Back
70. (“Recidivism of Sex Offenders Released From Prison in 1994,” Table 2, U.S. Department of Justice). Some prominent blacks now argue that black behavior, including misbehaving in class, failing to learn from books, and even crime, is authentic black behavior and should be accepted. (MacDonald, H., “Poisonous ‘Authenticity’,” City Journal, Apr. 29, 2008). Back