Chapter 9 - Hard Tissue

    First, let’s look at skulls from different races of man. Although no two skulls are identical, here are skulls that are typical of the races; first an Asian skull (Figure 9-1) and a Caucasian skull. (Figure 9-2). 1

Figure 9-1 Figure 9-2


Figure 9-3

    Overall, the dome of the Asian skull is round and the face is flat. 2 Although the Caucasian skull is a bit longer (top to bottom), it is very similar to the Asian skull, indicating that the Asians and Caucasians did not separate into two races all that long ago, or that there was interbreeding between their lineages.
    Figure 9-3 shows a male African-American skull. 3 Although this skull is described as being of an African-American, it has many African features. (The drawing of the “Negro” skull in Figure 9-9 may better epitomize the Congoid skull.)
    The African skull is quite different from the Asian and Caucasian skulls, indicating a much greater genetic distance between Eurasians and Africans than between Europeans and Asians. Compared to Asian and Caucasian skulls, the African skull is narrower. The bones of the skull (and the rest of the body) are denser and thicker. The eye sockets are rounder and proportionately larger and the distance between them is greater. The slight bump at the top of the head suggests a “saggital keel,” a ridge along the top of the head from the forehead to the back of the skull for attaching chewing muscles and strengthening the skull from blows received in fighting. 4 The opening for the nose is wider, the nose bones protrude less, and the teeth more massive, with the incisors meeting at an angle (also see Figure 26-11).
    The most noticeable difference, however, is the protruding jaw, a condition known as “prognathism,” a trait found in apes and in ancient human fossil skulls, even those not from Africa. The considerable gap between the cheekbones (“zygomatic arches”) and the indentation on the sides behind the eye sockets (“post-orbital constriction”) indicate that the more massive jaw was serviced by powerful chewing muscles that passed through the gap. Figures 9-4 and 9-5 provide a side-by side comparison of the skulls of an African of the Manbettu tribe in the northern Congo basin and an Englishman. 5 The African skull has less prominent nose bones and chin, a deeper jaw and the bone that supports the jaw (the “ascending ramus”) is wider; the shape of the skulls is also different.

Figure 9-4 Figure 9-5

    Table 9-1 lists a number of the more significant hard tissue traits that differ between the races, including a few in Australian aborigines (AA), Homo erectus (He), Neanderthals (Hn), chimpanzees (C), and gorillas (G). A hyphen indicates no data and the notes after the table explain the differences more fully.
Table 9-1
Trait Asians Europeans Africans AA, He, Hn, C, & G
Skull
Endocranial Volume 6

1491 cc 1441 cc 1338 cc AA: 1290 cc
He: 1000-1200 cc
C: 500 cc
Cranial bones (1) Thinner and lighter (gracile) Thin and light (less gracile) Thick and dense (robust) AA&He: Thickest and densest
Cranial sutures (2) Complex Complex Simpler He: Simpler
Permanently unclosed sutures (3) 1/13 1/7 1/52 -
Skull shape
(Cephalic Index) (4)
>80 (brachycephalic) <80 & >75 (mesocephalic) <75 (dolichocephalic) AA: 71 – 71.5
Saggital keel (5) Usually absent Usually absent Sometimes present AA&He: Present
Occipital bun (6) Absent Some individuals Some tribes Hn: Present
AA: Present
Post-orbital constriction (7) Average Average Larger AA & He: Pronounced
Cheek bones (8) Projecting Average Slightly projecting -
Foramen magnum (9) Center Center Farther back -
Face
Forehead High High Less high AA&E: Sloped
C&G: very sloped
Brow ridge (10) Small (except some Japanese men) Medium Small AA: Prominent
He: Prominent
Eye sockets (11) Almost round, slightly sloped, small Rectangular, slightly sloped, small Square or rectangular, larger, and farther apart AA: Rectangular
C: Round and large
Nasal Index & shape (12) 48-53 Oval <48 Tear-shaped >53 Rounded, wide He: Rounded, wide
Nasal Prominence (13) Average More Less He: Less
C: None
G: None
Two nose bones - Not joined Sometimes joined G: Joined (Duckworth, 1895, p. 338).
Prognathism (14) Little Little Pronounced AA & He: More pronounced
Facial angle (15) - 80-82° 68-70° G: 50°
Chin (16) Slightly projecting Prominent and projecting Slight and rounded AA: Receding
He: Smaller and rounded
Mouth
Simian shelf (17) No Rare Vestige C & G: Yes
Hn: Half size
He: Little or none
Palate shape Parabolic or horseshoe-shaped Triangular Rectangular He: Rectangular
Teeth (18) Medium Smaller Larger, wider apart He: Large, wide apart
Shoveled upper incisors (19) Present Rare Only Bushmen In Asian He and a few African He
Hn: Present
Skeleton
Spine shape (20) Three curves Three curves Less curved C: One curve
Spine length Long Long Shorter;
chest rounder
-
Pelvic girth (21) - 33 inches 26½ inches -
Sacral Index (22) - Male: 102.9
Female: 112.4
Male: 91.4
Female: 103.6
C: 77
G: 72
Arms and legs (23) Arms: shorter
Legs: shorter
Average Arms: longer
Legs: longer
-
Heel Bone (24) Short Medium Long -

    (1) At birth, Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. 7 The skull bones (and other bones) in Africans (Schnitzler, 1993) and erectus are thicker and denser (higher mineral content; Ettinger, 1997; Hui, 2003; Pollitizer, 1989), even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break, which is an aid in head butting and fighting as blows to the head can easily be fatal. (Broca, 1858, cited in Rushton, 2000a, p. 106). Some anthropologists believe skulls got thicker about 1.6 to 1.8 million ya when erectus developed clubs as weapons, resulting in more cracked skulls. (Wrangham, 1996; Schulting, 2002). “Herodotus … described how easily, in comparison to an Egyptian’s skull, a Persian’s skull cracked.” (Schwartz, 1999, p. 48; Egyptians had interbred with Africans by that time.) Denser bones (and less fat) make Africans less buoyant and less capable swimmers, 8 but reduce their susceptibility to osteoporosis. Female bones are lighter than male bones.

    (2) (Cull, 1850). The cranial sutures are the zigzag lines where the bones that form the skull cap join together. Less complex sutures may be due to an earlier fusion of the cranial bones.

Figure 9-6

    (3) The unclosed sutures are the proportion of the total number of intersecting sutures at the top of the skull that are permanently unclosed. Unclosed sutures permit growth of the brain. An example is the retention of the metopic suture in adult Caucasians, but not adult Africans. (Figure 9-6).

 Black  White  Mongol
    Figure 9-7

    (4) The numbers are the cephalic index, which is equal to 100 times the width of the head divided by its length. (Baker, 1974). The long, narrow skull of the Africans (dolichocephalic) loses heat the fastest and the more spherical skull of the Asians (brachycephalic) better retains heat. (Boyd, 1955). Compare these black, white, and Northeast Asian (Mongol) skulls (Figure 9-7) drawn by (Morton, 1839). The black skull is more simian as it is long and narrow. The white and Mongol skulls are rounder and about the same size, but the cheek bones flair out more on the Mongol skull. There is a correlation of 0.37 between cranial capacity and the cephalic index, i.e., the long, narrow skulls of Africans have a smaller cranial capacity. (Beals, 1984).
    Figure 9-8 is a tree showing the linkage between living human populations based on 57 measurements of male skulls. (DeAnza College, CA). The African skulls are very different from the skulls of all the other populations, even the Australian aborigines. Figure 9-9 show a Negro skull profile superimposed upon a European skull profile. 9) The Negro skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back. (Hunt, 1864, p. 8).
Figure 9-8 Figure 9-9 Figure 9-10 Figure 9-11

    (5) Notice the slight saggital keel (or crest) at the top of the head in the Homo habilis skull (Figure 9-10, 10) and in the picture of killer James Ealy (Figure 9-11). (Also see Fig. 9-17, 10-7, & 16-6.)
Figure 9-12 Figure 9-13

    (6) The occipital bun (Figure 9-12) 11 is a bulge at the back of the skull, where the brain processes visual information. Georgicus, antecessor, Peking man (Figure 17-7b), Junniushan (Figure 17-9), and the Neanderthals had occipital buns and Heidi, too, may have had it. “They [occipital buns] do however occur fairly often among Australids [Australian aborigines], Khoisanids [Hottentots, Bushmen - see Chap. 26], and Lappids [Lapps (Sami) in Finland], and, interestingly, among inhabitants of Lancashire, UK.” 12 Although the purpose of the occipital bun is not clear, it is associated most with the Neanderthals.
    Some African skulls are also characterized by a “dent” (“post bregmatic depression”) in the top of the skull visible from the side. (Figure 9-13). 13 This “dent” is also seen the Hobbit skull, Figure 17-11 and some erectus skulls; note that even the otherwise-modern English skull in Figure 9-5 has a dent. It is a primitive feature that may be tied to important changes in the growth of the brain. (Coqueugniot, 2004; Figure 14-2) .

    (7) A post-orbital constriction is a pinching of the skull just behind the eye sockets. It allows more room for large chewing muscles, but indicates a smaller forebrain, the center of planning and abstract thought. Figure 9-14 shows a chimpanzee skull, and Figures 9-15 and 9-16 show, respectively, the skulls of a recently-deceased Australian aborigine and a Caucasian. (Also see Fig., 17-2, p. 145).
Chimp
Figure 9-14
Australian
Figure 9-15
Caucasian
Figure 9-16
Figure 9-17

    (8) Referring to Figure 9-17, the cheek bones (“zygomatic arches”) extend outward the least in Caucasians, the most in Asians, and in between in Africans. (Beyers, 2007).

    (9) The foramen magnum (“big hole,” aka “occipital foramen”) is the opening in the base of the skull through which the spinal chord exits the skull. The head is positioned on the spinal chord so that the eyes see horizontally to the ground. Because we walk upright, our spinal cord is vertical so it enters directly underneath the skull.
    Chimpanzees and gorillas walk on knuckles with long arms and short legs, and their spinal cord is at an angle and enters farther to the back of the skull. Monkeys walk on four legs and their spinal cord is nearly horizontal and enters at the rear of the skull. In Figure 9-18, the foramen magnum is the large black hole. 14
    Table 9-2 gives the results of measurements of the position of the foramen magnum in primates: 15

Primate Number
examined
Maximum (%) Mean (%) Minimum (%) Range
(Max. – Min.)


Figure 9-18
White 20 50.0 45.6 41.7 8.3
Tsuktchi (Japan)5 47.2 45.3 44 3.2
Negro 17 48.7 44.4 38.7 10.0
South Islanders 28 47.5 41.8 36.1 11.4
Hindoos (India) 19 45.3 41.4 5.6 9.8
N. Am. Indians 45 47.8 40.9 34.8 13.0
Adult gorillas 3 26.8 22.7 17.7 -
Young gorilla 1 - 40 - -
Adult chimpanzee1 - 21 - -
Young chimpanzee3 39 35.3 32 -
Table 9-2

Table 9-2 shows that the foramen magnum is farthest to the front in whites and farthest to the back in adult chimpanzees. The foramen magnum in Australopithecus is “located near the center of the skull base [i.e., not including the jaw], as far from the rear as in some human races” (Coon, 1962, p. 258); it is even farther to the front in erectus and, in living people, it is farthest to the front in the “Romano-British.” 16 Note that in the young gorilla and chimpanzees the foramen magnum is closer to the human range; thus, neoteny assists bipedalism by moving the foramen magnum towards the front. (Luboga, 1990) Although the Neanderthal is not listed Table 9-2, their foramen magnum is also “a little to the back.” (Howells, 1948, p. 167). In Table 9-2 the Negro foramen magnum is only slightly farther to the rear. 17

    (10) The brow ridges (“supraorbital ridges”) are boney ridges over the eyes which strengthen the skull and protect the eyes during fighting. They are needed when the teeth are large, the jaws heavy, and the chewing muscles strong, characteristics of populations that eat mostly vegetable matter. Once man learned to hunt, control fire, and cook his food, large chewing muscles were no longer needed and brow ridges diminished. (See photos in Chap. 2).

    (11) East Asians have the roundest eye sockets and Australian aborigines have the most rectangular.18 Neanderthal orbits are also round (Fig. 2-6 & 2-7) but African and European orbits are square or rectangular; European orbits slope more. Racial differences in eye sockets are not large and overlap due to intermixing. Except for the Neanderthals, the size of eye sockets, and therefore the size of the eyes, decreases slightly in the colder climates, which may be an adaptation to cold weather to help reduce exposure of the eyes. The eyes of blacks are also farther apart, as can be seen by comparing a “Black” skull (Figure 9-19, probably African American) to the front view of a Caucasian skull in Figure 9-20.

Figure 9-19 ("Black") Figure 9-20 (Caucasian)

Figure 9-21

    (12) Nasal prominence is a measurement of how far the nasal bones extend from the face. Figure 9-21 shows the distribution of nasal prominences in African and European skulls. (Howells, 1989). The curves that connects the bars show that Africans and Europeans have different means, with the European nasal bones being more prominent (Figure 9-21). The nostrils in Africans open higher on the face, closer to the eyes, but not as far as in apes. (Cartwright, 1857, p. 46). S-S Africans have “very flat nasal bones.” (Hanihara, 2000).

    (13) The nasal index is 100 times the width of the nasal cavity divided by its breadth. The nasal cavity is short and wide in Africans and long and narrow in Asians and Caucasians, but larger in Caucasians. The shape of the nasal cavity also differs between the races (Figure 9-17).
    The difference between Eurasians and Africans in their nasal spines is dramatic. The anterior nasal spine is a small bone that extends outward from the middle of the base of the nasal cavity; it supports a nose that protrudes. The nasal spine is prominent in Caucasians (Figures 9-2, 9-5, 9-20, & 9-22), less so in Asians (Figure 9-1) and small or absent in Africans and African Americans (Figures 9-4 & 9-23). (Beyers, 2007). The race of a skull can be determined by placing a pen across the base of the nasal cavity. If the pen is held in place by the nasal spine, the skull is Caucasian; if it rolls off, the skull is African; chimpanzees and gorillas also lack a true anterior nasal spine. (Mooney, 2005, & Duckworth, 1895, p. 338).
Figure 9-22 (Caucasian)    Figure 9-23 (African)

    In addition to the nasal spine, the base of the front of the nasal cavity also differs between the races. Referring to the arrows, in Caucasians (Figure 9-22), there is a sharp ridge along the edge of the base, in Asians the top of the ridge is rounded, and in Africans (Figure 9-23) there is no ridge. (Also see Figure 9-19, “Guttered Nasal Border.”)

    (14) Simian prognathism (a protruding jaw with a recessed nose) is a very primitive trait that is characteristic of apes. A jutting jaw is needed if the teeth are large, plus it is an advantage in fighting as it permits a bigger bite and makes the eyes less vulnerable. (Howells, 1959, p. 125). One is reminded of the 1997 title fight in Los Vegas where Mike Tyson bit a piece out of the ear of WBA champ Evander Holyfield.
Figure 9-24

    Figure 9-24 (Nature, Vol. 228) shows a comparison of the lower jaw (mandible) of an orangutan, a Negro, and a white. The rectangles illustrate the width and length of the jaws. The numbers are the percentages of the length to the width. When there is simian prognathism the jaw is long and narrow, as in the orangutan, and when the face is flat, as the white jaw is, the length is actually less than the width; as expected, the Negro jaw is in between the jaw of the orangutan and the jaw of the white.
    Figure 9-25 shows a subtle difference between Caucasian and African jaws. Looking outward from inside the mouth, the upward-directed bone that holds the jaw in place (“ascending ramus”) shows an inward protrusion (inversion) on the ramus of the African jaw that is absent in the Caucasian jaws. There are many small racial differences like this that can be used to help determine race.


Figure 9-25

   
Figure 9-26

    (15) Prognathism, the absence of “facial flatness” (Hanihara, 2000), can be measured by means of the facial angle, the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. Figure 9-26 is by Camper, who first used the concept. In his drawings, Camper gives the facial angle as 70° for the “Negro” (i.e., Congoids); H. habilis and H. erectus also have a facial angle of about 70°. 19 An angle of 60° has been given for the Hottentots and Bushmen, and 66.6° for the Australian aborigines below the nose. (Baker, 1974, p. 281); orangutans have a facial angle of 58°. 20 Camper regarded a facial angle of 100° as the epitome of beauty (Etcoff, 1999, pp. 42-43); s-S Africans have “remarkable prognathism.” (Hanihara, 2000). Figure 9-27.
Figure 9-27

    A protruding jaw is usually associated with a sloping forehead (Figures 9-9 & 9-26), which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition, and self control. 21 Thus, the absence of prognathism is seen as less bestial and an indication of higher intelligence. The owl, for example, with its perfectly vertical facial line, was the emblem of Athena, the goddess of wisdom. Other characteristics of the jaw can also be used to identify race. (Buck, 2004).

    (16) The purpose of a chin is to strengthen the jaw. When the jaw is massive, there is no need for a chin, but a more modern gracile jaw requires a chin to prevent debilitating jaw fractures. Only Hss fossils have chins (but not all modern humans have prominent chins). European males have the most prominent chins.

    (17) The lower jaw (“mandible”) can be strengthened to withstand the stresses of chewing by making it thick and heavy, by adding a chin on the outside, or by adding a simian shelf (a bony horizontal ridge in the mouth behind the lower incisors) on the inside of the jaw. (Fig. 9-27). A simian shelf is found in all apes, Neanderthals, and archaic man, but is absent in erectus (Coon, 1962, p. 349) and most modern men. As jaws became less massive, the simian shelf appeared, then was later replaced by the chin. Africans may have a vestige of a simian shelf (Fig. 9-25).
Figure 9-28

Figure 9-29

Figure 9-30

    (18) In Eurasians, the upper teeth usually overlap the lower incisors, but in Africans the upper incisors are mounted in the jaw at an angle and project forward so that they meet the lower at an angle. (Figures 9-3 & 9-4; in Figure 9-27, the gorilla’s teeth meet at an even greater angle.) African teeth are more primitive than Eurasian teeth and there are many other differences in their structures. (Irish, 1998 & 2003; Edgar, 2005; Chap. 16, FN 9).

    (19) A “shoveled” incisor (Figure 9-29) is an upper front tooth that has ridges reinforcing its two back vertical edges to resist back-to-front forces. This means that shoveled incisors were once used for another purpose in addition to cutting food, such as scraping objects (see wear in Figure 9-30).
    The scraping must have been vital to survival and broken incisors must have made survival less likely. Otherwise, shelved incisors would not be so widespread among Asians today. Northern Europeans also frequently have moderate shoveling, possibly derived from the Neanderthal lineage. (Chap. 25). Because shoveled incisors first appeared about 2 mya, whatever the activity was, it was done by erectus or an earlier hominoid, and later generations are only gradually losing the trait as tools are used instead of teeth. Shoveled incisors may have initially been used in the Asian tropics to form points on bamboo spears, 22 then later proved useful in the north for scraping and softening animal skins. 23 Asians also have single-rooted upper first premolars and triple-rooted lower first molars.

    (20) The neck of Africans (i.e., Congoids) is described as shorter and thicker, but some Africans from other parts of Africa have long, slender necks. 24

    (21) A larger diameter pelvis will be selected for if baby head size, and therefore brain size, increases. Africans, with the smallest skulls, also have the smallest pelvis and give birth more easily. Pelvic measurements can be used not only to distinguish males from females, but even American white males from American black males, with about 75% accuracy. (Iscan, 1983).

    (22) The sacral index is the breadth of the sacrum (the five fused vertebrae that are connected to the pelvis) as a percentage of its length. (Hanson, 1998). Walking upright increased the sacral index, enabling the sacrum to better support the internal organs, so a low sacral index is more primitive and a high sacral index is more modern. Table 9-3 gives sacral indices from Turner and Borst.
Table 9-3
Primate (Turner, 1886,
p. 317-323)
(Borst, 1986,
42 -26)
Sexual
Dimorphism
(F minus M)**
Male Female
Gorillas 72


Chimpanzees 77


Orangutans 87


Negroes 91.4 103.6 12.2
Egyptians 94.3 99.1 4.8
Andamenese* 94.8 103 8.2
Australian aborigines 98.5 100.2 110.0 9.8
Japanese 101.5 107.1 5.6
Europeans 112 (males) 102.9 112.4 9.5
*Asian aborigines from the Andaman Islands, east of India in the Bengal Sea.
** Female value minus male value.

    As usual, the Negroes are closest to the apes. Note that the Negroes and the Andamenese are close together, especially for the females. As we shall see in Chapter 26, this may be due to early (perhaps pre-Homo) migration from India into Africa. The Egyptians are close to the Negroes because of significant admixture with Africans. The Australian aborigines are close to Europeans in both sacral index and the sexual dimorphism of the sacral index because both descended from a generalized archaic human that lived in West Asia (Chap. 24 & 27). The hips of blacks are also narrower, which makes walking and running more efficient for them. (Himes, 1988). While Borst found a higher sexual dimorphism for blacks in the sacral index, overall Europeans have the highest sexual dimorphism, even before birth (Choi, 1970), and Asians the lowest.
    Vertebrae can also be used to help determine race. (Marino, 1997). Baker, 1974, pp 300-301) refers to a “simian notch,” a much narrower second sacral vertebra, that is much narrower laterally than the first or third vertebrae, “characteristic of pongids [apes].” “It occurs in nearly one-third of all Australid and Europid sacra, but is much more frequent in Negrids, among whom it appears to be a primary character.”

    (23) As primates went from swinging by their arms to walking on their legs, their arms grew shorter and their legs longer (Wikipedia, Craniometry," Figure. 9-31).

Gibbon Gorilla Chimpanzee Orangutan Man
Figure 9-31

    The “reach” is the distance between the fingertips when the arms are extended horizontally. Of the first 50 Heavyweight Champions, the 17 white fighters had an average reach of 76.13 inches and the 33 black fighters had an average reach of 78.23 inches. 25 The increased reach of the black fighters is due to a longer forearm and longer fingers. Africans also have longer legs than Caucasians; Asians have the shortest legs.
    The brachial index is the percentage that one of the lower arm bones (the radius) is of the upper arm bone (the humerus). (Aiello, 1990, pp. 249; Holliday, 1999). The crural index is the percentage that one of the lower leg bones (the tibia) is of the upper leg bone (the femur). The humerofemoral index is the percentage that the arm bones (humerus plus radius) are of the leg bones (femur plus tibia). A high brachial and humerofemoral index indicates adaptation for swinging by the arms and a low index indicates adaptation for walking. 26 The brachial, crural, and humerofemoral indices of Africans are closer to those of apes. 27 From the length of only the femur, the height can be estimated using different equations for black and white males and females. (Trotter, 1970, pp. 71–83; Trudell, 1999). Blacks have longer legs but shorter torsos, i.e., a greater skelic index (length of legs x 100/length of trunk; Meredith, 1976).
    African hands are larger and longer (Hunt, 1864, pp. 7-8), and the fingers of blacks differ from those of whites in a subtle and peculiar way. In the womb, the female sex hormone, estrogen, increases the growth of the verbal areas of the brain as well as length of the index finger (the second digit, “2D”) and the male sex hormone, testosterone, increases the growth of the numerical area of the brain as well as the length of the ring finger (“4D”). 28 Thus, more testosterone in the womb results in a lower index/ring finger length (the “2D:4D” ratio); in males, the ring finger (“4D”) is usually longer, but in females the ring and index fingers are usually about equal. However, males who have a 2D:4D ratio that is higher than the average for males (and is therefore closer to the higher female 2D:4D ratio) have better numeracy, and males with smaller ratio than the male average have better literacy. (Brosnan, 2006). And, “In common with adults, the 2D:4D ratio of children shows sex and ethnic differences with low values found in a Black group [i.e., the male and female ratios are below the male and female averages].” (Manning, 2004). This is consistent with data showing that both male and female blacks have higher levels of testosterone (Chap. 10) and perform poorer at numerical tasks than they do at verbal tasks. Since there is less need for numeracy in the tropics, this is not unexpected.

    (24) The heel bone projects more in Africans and differs in length, breadth, shape, and position, giving Africans a greater ability to sprint and jump. (Johnston, 1910). This is one reason why “White Men Can’t Jump” and West Africans excel in sports that require jumping. African feet are flatter and there is more separation between the first and second toes.29
   

Chapter 10

Table of Contents

FOOTNOTES

1.  Figure 9-2 is a picture of a skull sold by Fossils.com. Back

2. A “flat face” means that the center of the face does not extend much farther forward than the cheekbones. (Coon, 1962, pp. 364-369). A simple test to see if a skull is Asian is to place it face down on a table. If it rests on the cheekbones and doesn’t rock because the nose doesn’t touch the table, it is probably an Asian. East Asians have very flat faces. (Hanihara, 2000). Back

3. The replica shown in Figure 9-3 is sold by France Castings. Back

4. “Early Neolithic Britons had a one in 20 chance of suffering a skull fracture at the hands of someone else and a one in 50 chance of dying from their injuries. “ (Young, 2006). That was probably true elsewhere on the planet as well and even more true at earlier times. Back

5.  (Johnston, 1910, pp. 13 & 15). The skulls have been rotated so that a line passes between their back molars to the base of their skulls. Back

6. Male only, home continent and U.S., not corrected for body size. (Rushton, 2000a, p. 283, from Beals, 1984: AA from (Baker, 1974), p. 279). White children have larger heads than black children, even though black children are taller. (Rushton, 2000a, pp. 40-41). Back

7. “The white infant comes into the world with its brain enclosed by fifteen disunited bony plates – the occipital bone being divided into four parts, the sphenoid into three, the frontal into two, each of the two temporals into two, which, with the two parietals, make fifteen plates in all – the vomer and ethmoid not being ossified at birth. … The negro infant, however, is born with a small, hard, smooth, round head like a gourd. Instead of the frontal and temporal bones being divided into six plates, as in the white child, they form but one bone in the negro infant.” (Cartwright, 1857, p. 45). Back

8. (Ama, 1997). “Black children are 2½ times more likely to drown than white kids.” (Park, D., Chicago Sun Times, June 22, 2007). Fewer blacks are in the Navy SEALs or win medals in Olympic swimming and diving events. Back

9. From (Pierce, R.V., The People's Common Sense Medical Adviser in Plain English: or, Medicine Simplified, 1895). Back

10. Figure 9-10 is a reproduction of KNM-ER 1813, available from The Evolution Store, NYC, NY. Saggital keels can be found in herbivores that require powerful muscles to grind up plant matter, e.g., the gorilla, and carnivores that need a powerful bite to kill larger prey, e.g., the bobcat. (Nickens, T.E., "Survivor," National Wildlife, Aug.-Sept., 2008). Back

11. (“An Introduction to and anatomical evidence supporting Neanderthal introgression (Part 1),” Anthropology.net, Nov. 14, 2006). Back

12. (SNPA Glossary of Physical Anthropological Terms [http://www.snpa.nordish.net/glossary.htm (no longer available)]; also Baker, 1974, p. 279). Back

13.  From (Rhine, 1990). Back

14. (McKie, 2000, p. 19). Back

15. (Wyman, 1896). The distance from the front of the foramen magnum to the back of the head was divided by the distance from the front of the head to the back of the head, and expressed as a percentage in Table 9-2. The “front of the head” was a hole (“alveoli”) in the upper jaw, not the end of the jaw. This may be why the North American Indian’s foramen magnum is farther to the back than is the Negro’s. Had the “front” been the front of the jaw, the position would have been farthest back in the Africans. Also, “Negro” is probably African American, not African. (Broca, 1858, cited by (Rushton, 2000a, p. 106; Coon, 1962, p. 258; Cartwright, 1857, p. 46; Johnson, D.R., "Retardation and neoteny in human evolution"; Burmeister, 1853). Back

16.  (Luboga, 1990). Later in this book, it is suggested that man may have had no quadrupedal ancestors; if true, the position of the foremen magnum would be in the center for all human populations, except for populations whose ancestors had interbred with a quadrupedal ape. There was interbreeding between the chimpanzee lineage and the human lineage and although today chimpanzees live only in Africa, their ancestors may have lived in Eurasia and the interbreeding may have occurred there instead of in Africa. (Patterson, 2006; Arnold, 2006). “The close resemblance in DNA structure between humans and chimpanzees even suggests that a hybrid species would be viable – a chastening thought.” (Corballis, 1991, p. 35, citing Lovejoy, 1981). Back

17. “The occipital foremen [foramen magnum], giving exit to the spinal cord, is a third longer [in the African] says Cuvier, in proportion to its breadth, than in the Caucasian, and is so oblique as to form an angle of 30°with the horizon, yet not so oblique as in the simiadiae [apes], …” (Cartwright, 1857). Back

18. Note the small nasal spine in the African American skull (Figure 9-3), which is absent in the African skull (Figure 9-4). Back

19. (Ferguson, 1989; Curnoe, 2006). “… the Negro thus has a facial angle generally between 70 and 75 degrees, occasionally only 65 degrees.” (Hunt, 1865). Back

20. (O’Flaherty, B. & Shapiro, J.S., “Apes, Essences, and Races: What Natural Scientists Believed about Human Variation, 1700 – 1900,” Columbia University, Mar., 2002). Back

21.  “This angle is now understood to be primarily related to the development of the frontal part of the brain …” (Ferguson, 1989). Back

22. Chimpanzees have been found to make spears and sharpen them with their teeth. (New Scientist, Mar. 3-9, p. 16). Back

23.  “Neandertals had unusually robust anterior [front] teeth that were worn down in a distinctive manner, suggestive of their use in the preparation of hides.” “The Cultural Modification of Teeth.” Also (Hoffecker, 2002, p. 60). Back

24. (Burmeister, 1853; Hunt, 1864, p. 7). A more muscular neck is consistent with a foramen magnum that is farther to the back. (Johnson, D.R., "Retardation and neoteny in human evolution"). Back

25. “… some races seem more arboreally constituted than others.” (Coon, 1962, p. 154). Back

26.  Referring to H. habilis: “Moreover, the arms are long relative to the legs, a characteristic that is more ape-like than human.” (Corballis, 1991, pp. 39-40). Back

27. The explanation is probably Allen’s Rule, that shorter limbs are selected in colder climates; legs in humans, however, got longer than ape legs due to our bipedalism. Back

28. The reason for this peculiarity is that Hox genes, which control differentiation of the digits, are expressed more in the gonads. Back

29. (Burmeister, 1853; see Fig. 4-1). “Darwin pointed to the foot of some ‘savages’ as still retaining some of the prehensility [grasping] characteristic of the ape foot.” (Schwartz, 1999, p. 160). Back